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River deltas that support millions of people are threatened by climate change and hydropower

Aug 30 2021 | Posted in: Research Highlight
By Sarah Cafasso
The Natural Capital Project’s Rafael Schmitt discusses hydropower planning for supporting climate resilience in the Greater Mekong Region. He has published a series of papers on the topic, including new research out this week.

Wiring Diagram Mercury Outboard Remote Control Box Mercruiser Wiring By 2050, it is estimated that one billion people will live less than 10 meters above sea level. Sediment is a crucial nature-based solution for combatting climate change and protecting communities. Photo credit: Qui Thinh Tran/ iStock.

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1967 Ford Thunderbird Wiring Diagram Rivers create hotspots for food production and livelihood support, but they are increasingly threatened by the impacts of climate change. As much as 90% of the Mekong River Delta could fall below sea level this century due to rising seas and loss of the critical sediment that maintains river beds. The implications of that shift are drastic — more than 17 million people live in the delta, where their livelihoods depend on its biodiverse rivers.

Cadillac Seville Northstar Engine Diagram By Manfred New research from the Natural Capital Project’s Rafael Schmitt and Gretchen Daily shows the important role that sediment plays in climate resilience for coastal delta communities worldwide and how poorly planned hydropower dams threaten the natural flow of sediment.

Draw Electrical Diagrams Online The Toyota Mr2 Wiring Diagrams, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is the latest in a series of publications from Schmitt on strategic hydropower planning for greener economies. Here, he discusses how hydropower, when planned with care, can be an important stepping-stone towards a more sustainable energy system.

This is an updated adaptation of this story from June 2021.

 

Why is the connectedness of rivers so important to hydropower planning?

Bayou 220 Wiring Schematic Rafael Schmitt: People depend on river waters in so many ways. Rivers provide people with drinking water, irrigation for crops, aquatic habitat and fisheries, and many important cultural benefits. They also can provide a tremendous amount of energy through hydropower.

How Wire Light Switch Diagram Hydropower dams can play an important role in helping developing economies transition to a cleaner energy system that also meets the needs of their people. But the environmental externalities — the side effects — of dams can be catastrophic.

Honeywell Boiler Aquastat Wiring Diagram The United States and Europe have many examples of the damaging side effects of dams, from the collapse of fisheries in the United States’ Pacific Northwest to loss of biodiversity and livelihoods in the Colorado River and Delta. These examples foreshadow what could happen in many developing countries, like those in the Greater Mekong region, if dams aren’t planned strategically.

Lights Wiring Diagram As Well Fog Light Relay Wiring Diagram On Hella The goal of my work is to build our understanding of the connectivity of river systems to show the benefits they provide to people. When we can highlight those benefits, we can help countries make hydropower development decisions that are smarter and more sustainable.

What is sediment and how does it provide benefits to people?

2006 Volvo Xc90 Engine Parts Diagram Sediment is the term we use for all kinds of solids that are transported by water — sand, silt, gravel and more. When water transports sediment, it defines the shape of a river channel, creating aquatic habitat and enabling people to access the water and other benefits that rivers provide.

1985 Nissan Pickup Vacuum Diagram On 87 Nissan Truck Vacuum Diagram Sediment has traditionally been framed as a problem, because too much sediment can smother stream beds and destroy fish habitats. Such an overload of sediment is often the result of poor land management practices like large-scale agriculture and deforestation. Sediment is beneficial to people — you just need the right amount of it.

1997 Dodge Ram Trailer Wiring Diagram View Diagram Dodge Ram 2500 4X4 How does hydropower hinder the climate change resiliency benefits that sediment provides to people?

Sound Systems Wiring Diagram Pdf Get Free Image About Wiring Diagram When you install a new hydropower dam, it creates a cascade of impacts. Fish habitats are disrupted or destroyed, natural irrigation waters are blocked, and sediment stops flowing to downstream communities.

Leviton Framed Toggle Singlepole Switch White Home Depot Canada For coastal communities, sediment supply is especially critical in combatting climate change. Rising sea levels and extreme storm events are constantly and increasingly eroding shorelines. It’s estimated that 680 million people live less than 10 meters above sea level. By 2050, that number is expected to rise to one billion people. If a dam cuts off the sediment supply to those coastal communities, their shores will quickly erode into the sea. Keeping natural sediment supply flowing from river basins to coasts is crucial as a nature-based solution to combat climate change. When a delta has a natural supply of sediment, it can respond to external pressures like rising sea levels on its own.

1992 Toyota Land Cruiser Ignition Switch Hydropower dams often disproportionally impact communities that are already overburdened. Those communities don’t have another way to replace the lost nutrition, the lost job, and the loss of traditional fishery-related culture.

Gm Tbi Pickup Coil Wiring How can countries strategically plan for hydropower development without increasing threats to communities and livelihoods?

2000 Silverado Fuel Pressure First, the country or region needs to determine how much hydropower they require to meet the needs of their population. Thanks to the rapid development of photovoltaic solar energy in recent years, a country that may have required 50 hydropower dams a few years ago can now invest primarily in solar and only develop five dams. Rather than the main energy source, hydropower can act as a backup for the times the sun isn’t shining, like nights and cloudy days.

2000 Ford F 150 Pcv Valve Location Wiring Diagram Photos For Help Second, we can apply our scientific models to determine the trade-offs for each combination of energy system (e.g., a specific mix of solar and hydropower). We know we need a certain amount of hydropower, so we use numerical methods to identify combinations of dam sites which would create the least cumulative negative impacts on the environment and people while also providing enough energy.

2013 Kia Soul Wiring Diagram Radio Sometimes, the answer might be not to develop new dams inside the country, but instead to import hydropower energy from somewhere else.

What’s next for your research?

5 Pin Trailer Wiring Diagram Australia Much research has looked at how dams influence downstream ecosystems and people, but hasn’t focused much on the upstream.

2001 2006 Jeep Wrangler Fog Light Switch Headlight 2002 2003 2004 2005 When you build a dam, you need to manage the land surrounding the reservoir in addition to the reservoir itself. If too much sediment is flowing down into a dam’s reservoir, that’s going to increase operation and maintenance costs because it’s constantly filling up. Deforestation and aggressive agricultural practices can contribute to increased sediment and decreased dam efficiency.

Dynamite39S Large Scale Safety Kill Switch Allows You To Shut Off The The more power you can generate from an existing dam, the less need there is for building more dams. So, how can we make current dams more effective by better managing the land around them?

Watch a short Fire Alarm Wiring explainer of Schmitt’s work here.

 


E90 Radio Wire Diagram On Trigger In June, Schmitt received the Aspen Institute Italia Award alongside three co-authors on a study in Rsm Wiring Diagram about strategic hydropower planning in the Mekong region.

Mazda 5 Fuse Box If you’re interested in learning more about Schmitt’s strategic hydropower work, read his papers:

  1.  R. J. P. Schmitt, N. Kittner, G. M. Kondolf, D. M. Kammen, Beehive Wiring Board Environ. Res. Lett. 16, 054054 (2021).
  2. V. Barbarossa, R. J. P. Schmitt, M. A. J. Huijbregts, C. Zarfl, H. King, A. M. Schipper, Polaris Sportsman Wiring Harness. PNAS. 117, 3648–3655 (2020).
  3. R. J. P. Schmitt, S. Bizzi, A. Castelletti, J. J. Opperman, G. M. Kondolf, 1991 Gmc Wiring Diagram. Science Advances. 5, eaaw2175 (2019).
  4. R. J. P. Schmitt, N. Kittner, G. M. Kondolf, D. M. Kammen, Dimarzio Dp103 Wiring Diagram. Nature. 569, 330 (2019).
  5. R. J. P. Schmitt, S. Bizzi, A. Castelletti, G. M. Kondolf,Circuit Diagram Hair Dryer. Nature Sustainability. 1, 96–104 (2018).

 


 

 

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